France, 1815-1914: The Bourgeois Century

By Roger Magraw

During this energetic and stimulating research, Roger Magraw examines how the 19th-century French bourgeoisie struggled and at last succeeded in consolidating the earnings it made in 1789. The publication describes the makes an attempt of the bourgeoisie to remold France in its personal picture and its method for overcoming the resistance from the outdated aristocratic and clerical elites and the preferred periods. Incorporating the newest learn on faith and anticlericalism, the advance of the financial system, the position of ladies in society, and the academic procedure, this paintings is the 1st to attract largely at the new social background in its interpretation of occasions in 19th-century France.

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Mercantile teams in towns like Marseille had royalist sympathies. Aristocrats like de Solages owned mines, simply as many bourgeois owned land. Many liberals authorized the belief of an aristocracy. besides the fact that, while pragmatic royalist politicians like Villele tried to boost this sort of conservative coalition of previous and new elites, atavistic kin stories, traditions and hatreds thwarted him. at the eve of the 1830 revolution one perceptive liberal journalist contrasted Villele's reasonable 'capitalist' royalists with these, led by means of Polignac, representing bankrupt aristocrats with much less to lose from populism and extremism.

By contrast with the Orleanist formulae of protectionism and internallaissez-faire, nonetheless espoused via a lot of French company, he used to be ready to test with a clean mix of unfastened exchange and a degree of inner kingdom financial dirigisme. In international affairs, he deserted passive recognition of the 1815 cost, and was hoping to redraw the foreign map on the fee of the conservative powers, expanding French effect by way of making France the shopper of emerging nationalities. The regime's political approach used to be sui generis, with no modern eu parallel.

However, this cultural 'modernization' thesis calls for cautious qualification. Radical Jura used to be much less literate than neighbouring Catholic-conservative Doubs. within the Loiret, royalist Sologne and the unconventional Gatinais wooded area quarter shared low literacy degrees. The cultural roots of peasant militancy were uncovered such a lot convincingly in M. Agulhon's magnificent research of the advanced interaction of 'archaism' and 'modernity' within the Var. Proven<;al peasants concerned about a cash-crop economic climate of wine, olives and cork, have been politicized throughout the 'cultural brokerage' of rural artisans and petty bourgeois, who have been their neighbours within the huge villages and small cities- now not alien 'urban' intruders.

After 1830 republicans had attempted to recruit staff as allies opposed to Orleanism and expressed curiosity in cooperative rules. The SDH recruited a number of thousand Parisian staff and were energetic, if finally ineffectual, within the 1834 Lyon emerging. in all likelihood the hyperlinks weakened within the following decade. In Toulouse, the place republicans pursued electoralist strategies and brought blackleg labour to ruin a printers' strike on their newspaper, L 'Emancipation, socialist employees have been sufficiently angered to boycott the funeral of a republican chief.

Social Catholics like Ozanam and Maret, if severe of country collectivism, instructed that Catholics help social reform, for the *For the importance of peasant 'socialism' see pages 141-55. 138 THE problem FROM lower than plenty had rights in addition to tasks. Catholic artisans of L'Atelier, like Corbon, espoused cooperative socialism, a social gospel which rejected resignation. Socialists like Leroux emphasised the hyperlinks among socialism and the equality, fraternity and justice of primitive Christianity.

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